6 ON THE DVD.

Thermodynamics is commonly encountered in many engineering systems and gill sans bold western font other aspects of life, and one does not need to go very far to see some application areas.Instead, we can concentrate our attention on the volume formed by the interior surfaces of the tank and consider the hot and cold water streams as mass leaving and entering the control volume.Using Newtons second law, the actual weight of the cereal in the metric system is 13 systems AND control volumes A system is defined as a quantity of matter or a region in space chosen for study.Relaxed sign convention The use of a formal sign convention for heat and work is abandoned as it often becomes counterproductive.A metal chair, for exam- ple, will feel much colder than a wooden one even when both are at the same temperature.G.807 m/s2.807 kg m/s2.807 N 1 kgf.174 lbm ft/s2 1 lbf.174 ft/s2 kg lbm figure 110 The weight of a unit mass at sea level.When you buy a box of breakfast cereal, the printing may say Net weight: One pound (454 grams).It is well-known that a substance consists of a large number of particles called molecules.It should be pointed out that a quasi-equilibrium process is an idealized process and is not a true representation of an actual process.When a process proceeds in such a manner that the system remains infin- itesimally close to an equilibrium state at all times, it is called a quasi- static, or quasi-equilibrium, process.

You should keep in mind that a formula that is not dimensionally homo- geneous is definitely wrong, but a dimensionally homogeneous formula is not necessarily right.

In the English system, the energy unit is the Btu (British thermal unit which is defined as the energy required to raise the temperature of 1 lbm of water at 68F.

This practice leads to unnecessary confusion and is strongly discour- aged by the present authors.At that point, the heat transfer stops, and the two bodies are said to have reached thermal equilibrium.16 state AND equilibrium Consider a system not undergoing any change.That is, when a body is brought into contact with another body that is at a different temperature, heat is transferred from the body at higher temperature to the one at lower temperature until both bodies attain the same temperature (Fig.That is, (15) For a differential volume element of mass dm and volume dV, density can be expressed as r dm/dV.This introductory book contains sufficient material for two sequential courses in thermodynamics.If the gravitational effects are to be consid- ered, for example, the elevation z needs to be specified in addition to the two properties necessary to fix the state.Appendix 2 Property Tables and Charts (English Units) Table A-1E Molar mass, gas constant, and critical-point properties Table A-2E Ideal-gas specific heats of various common gases Table A-3E Properties of common liquids, solids, and foods Table A-4E Saturated waterTemperature table Table A-5E Saturated waterPressure table.